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February 2012 Policy Study, Number 12-3

   

The Idea of "the West" and the Revolt Against It

by Donald Paul Byron Racheter

   

 

Endnotes

   

 

[1] The author wishes to thank Central College Professors Rev. Dr. Terrence J. Kleven and Dr. A. Chadwick Ray who served as first and second readers for his Senior Honors Project from which this paper is an extract, and Dr. Don Racheter who assisted in this revision.
[2] See Thomas L. Pangle, The Ennobling of Democracy: The Challenge of the Postmodern Age, Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992, p. 3.
[3]See Allan David Bloom, The Closing of the American Mind: How Higher Education Has Failed Democracy and Impoverished the Souls of Today’s Students, Foreword by Saul Bellow, New York, New York, Simon and Schuster Inc, 1987, pp. 144-172.
[4] See Richard A. Oppel, Jr., and Khalid al-Ansary, “25 Insurgents Are Killed Trying to Overrun U.S. Outpost in Mosul,” New York Times, <http://www.nytimes.com/2004/12/30/international/ middleeast/30iraq.htm>, December 30, 2004.
[5] See Ibrahim M. Abu-Rabi, Intellectual Origins of Islamic Resurgence in the Modern Arab World, Foreword by Mahmoud Ayoub, Albany, New York, State University of New York Press, 1996, see especially pp. 62-91.
[6] Pangle, op. cit., p. 2.
[7] Ibid.
[8] Ibid., p. 3.
[9] Ibid., p. 3.
[10] Ibid.
[11] Ibid.
[12] Ibid. p. 4.
[13] Ibid.
[14] Ibid.
[15] Ibid. Emphasis in the original.
[16] Ibid.
[17] In chapter one, this includes: Lyotard, Rorty, Kojeve’s Helgelianism, Kant through Lyotard and Diderot, Heidegger, Burke, Marx, Longinus and Xenophon, Freud, Plato, Nietzsche, and Vattimo.
[18] Pangle, op. cit., p. 5.
[19] Ibid.
[20] Ibid., pp. 5-6.
[21] Ibid., p. 6.
[22] Ibid.
[23] Ibid.
[24] Ibid., p. 7.
[25] Ibid.
[26] Ibid.
[27] Ibid., p. 8. Emphasis in the original.
[28] Ibid.
[29] Ibid., pp. 8-9.
[30] Ibid., p. 9.
[31] Ibid.
[32] Ibid.
[33] Ibid.
[34] Montesquieu’s Philosophy of Liberalism: A Commentary on the Spirit of the Laws, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1973; The Spirit of Modern Republicanism: The Moral Vision of the American Founders and the Philosophy of Locke, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1988.
[35] Pangle, op. cit., p. 10.
[36] Ibid.
[37] Ibid.
[38] Ibid., p. 11.
[39] Ibid.
[40] Ibid.
[41] Ibid., pp. 11-12.
[42] Ibid., p. 12. Thus we see even in Kant’s noble and somewhat Christian attempt the elements of Machiavelli.
[43] Pangle references Philosophy of Right, sec. 135.
[44] Pangle references Philosophy of Right, secs. 19-20, 93, 123, 150, 158, 163, 242.
[45] Ibid., p. 13. Pangle’s reference: Kruger 1931, 236; emphasis in the original.
[46] Ibid.
[47] Ibid., p. 31.
[48] Ibid., p. 32.
[49] Ibid., p. 37.
[50] Ibid., p. 36.
[51] Ibid., p. 37.
[52] Ibid.
[53] Dr. Terrence J. Kleven, Mideastern Civilization Class Notes, Fall 2004.
[54] Pangle, op. cit., p. 48.
[55] Ibid.
[56] Ibid., pp. 48-49.
[57] Ibid., p. 50.
[58] Ibid.
[59] Ibid.
[60] Ibid.
[61] Ibid.
[62] Ibid., p. 51.
[63] Ibid., p. 53.
[64] Ibid.
[65] Ibid.
[66] Ibid.
[67] Ibid., p. 54.
[68] Although postmodernism is popularly and uncritically assumed to justify moral and political licentiousness, this statement goes beyond current conceptions of so-called “tolerance.” This takes the diminution of education one step further than the “feel-good” sentiments awash in popular liberal dialogue might support. This reveals the importance of the critical evaluation of popular thought.
[69] Pangle, op. cit., p. 55.
[70] Ibid.
[71] Ibid., p. 6.
[72] Ibid., p. 106.
[73] Ibid.
[74] Ibid., p. 107.
[75] Ibid.
[76] Ibid.
[77] Ibid., pp. 107-108.
[78] Ibid., p. 109.
[79] Ibid., p. 110.
[80] Ibid.
[81] See Alfarabi, The Political Writings: Selected Aphorisms and Other Texts, Translated and Annotated by Charles E. Butterworth, Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press, 2001.
[82] A blind turn to “democracy” may not be the answer the Mideast needs. For an evaluation of education in modern democracy, see: Allan Bloom, op. cit.

 

   

 

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