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September 2014 Policy Study, Number 14-4

   

A Citizens Introduction to Federalism: Federalism and the Future of Constitutional Government

   

Endnotes

   

 

[1] Stephen J. Tonsor, “How Does the Past Become the Future?” in Equality, Decadence, and Modernity: the Collected Essays of Stephen J. Tonsor, edited by Gregory L. Schneider, ISI Books, Wilmington, Delaware, 2005, p. 244.
[2] Ibid.
[3] Russell Kirk, The American Cause, ISI Books, Wilmington, Delaware, 2004, p. 68.
[4] Ibid.
[5] James Madison, “Federalist No. 45,” in The Federalist: The Gideon Edition by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, edited by George W. Carey and James McClellan, Liberty Fund, Indianapolis, Indiana, 2001, p. 241.
[6] Tenth Amendment, “The Constitution of the United States,” in The Federalist: The Gideon Edition by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, edited by George W. Carey and James McClellan, Liberty Fund, Indianapolis, Indiana, 2001, p. 542.  
[7] John S. Baker, Jr., “Horizontal and Vertical Consolidation of the United States into an Administrative State,” in Defending the Republic: Constitutional Morality in a Time of Crisis, edited by Bruce P. Frohnen and Kenneth L. Grasso, ISI Books, Wilmington, Delaware, 2008, p. 219.
[8] Ibid.
[9] Donald J. Devine, America’s Way Back: Reclaiming Freedom, Tradition, and Constitution, ISI Books, Wilmington, Delaware, 2013, p. 2.
[10] Ibid.
[11] Ibid., pp. 230-234.
[12] Ibid., p. 1.
[13] James McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice: An Introduction to the Constitutional Principles of American Government, Liberty Fund, Indianapolis, Indiana, 2000, pp.  89-90.
[14] Calvin Coolidge, “Foreword,” in James M. Beck, The Constitution of the United States, George H. Doran Company, New York, 1924.
[15] George W. Carey and James McClellan, editors, “Editor’s Introduction,” in The Federalist: The Gideon Edition, by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, Liberty Fund, Indianapolis, Indiana, 2001, p. xvii.
[16] James McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice, p. xx.
[17] James W. Ceaser, American Government: Origins, Institutions, and Public Policy, seventh edition, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa, 2002, p. 34.
[18] Carey and McClellan, p. xxiii.
[19] McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice, p. 256.
[20] Ibid.
[21] Ceaser, p 34.
[22] Matthew Spalding, We Still Hold These Truths: Rediscovering Our Principles, Reclaiming Our Future, ISI Books, Wilmington, Delaware, 2009, p. 90.
[23] George Washington quoted by James W. Ceaser in American Government, p. 35.
[24] Patrick Henry quoted by James W. Ceaser in American Government, p. 42.
[25] Carey and McClellan, pp. xix-xx.
[26] Spalding, p. 100.
[27] McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice, p. 248.
[28] Ibid.
[29] Ibid., p. 243.
[30] Ceaser, p. 43.
[31] Ibid.
[32] Spalding, p. 95.
[33] Ibid.
[34] McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice, p. 296.
[35] Ibid.
[36] Ibid.
[37] Ibid.
[38] Ibid., p. 351.
[39] Ibid.
[40] The Constitution of the United States of America, in Ceaser, p. 539.
[41] Spalding, p. 100.
[42] Ibid., pp. 100-101.
[43] Ibid., p. 101.
[44] Ibid., p. 102.
[45] Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, The Federalist: The Gideon Edition, edited by George W. Carey and James McClellan, Liberty Fund, Indianapolis, Indiana, 2001, pp. 268-269.
[46] McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice, p. 327.
[47] Bruce S. Thornton, “The Enduring Question,” Hoover Digest, 2014, No. 3, Summer, Hoover Institution, Stanford, California, p. 119.
[48] McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice, p. 331.
[49] Ibid., pp. 331-332.
[50] Ibid., pp. 332-334.
[51] Spalding, p. 120.
[52] Ibid., pp.120-121.
[53] Ibid., p. 121.
[54] McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice, p. 327.
[55] Ibid., p. 328.
[56] Ibid., p. 297.
[57] Ibid.
[58] Eugene W. Hickok, Why States? The Challenge of Federalism, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C., 2007, p. 2.
[59] Ceaser, p. 94.
[60] Hickok, p. 2.
[61] Ibid.
[62] Ceaser, p. 47.
[63] Ibid., p. 542.
[64] Spalding, p. 103.
[65] Ibid., p. 104.
[66] Ceaser, p. 542.
[67] Ibid.
[68] Justice Joseph Story, quoted in Spalding, p. 104.
[69] McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice, p. 305.
[70] Ibid.
[71] Roger Pilon, “The Purpose and Limits of Government,” Cato’s Letters, No. 13, Cato Institute, Washington, D.C., 1999, p. 25.
[72] Ibid., p. 26.
[73] McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice, pp. 306-307.
[74] The Constitution of the United States of America, in Ceaser, p. 549.
[75] McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice, p. 307.
[76] Spalding, p. 96.
[77] Ibid.
[78] George Washington quoted by Spalding, p. 96.
[79] Spalding, p. 97.
[80] McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice, p. 385.
[81] Ibid.
[82] Richard E. Wagner, “Anti-Federalists,” in American Conservatism: An Encyclopedia, edited by Bruce Frohnen, Jeremy Beer, and Jeffrey O. Nelson, ISI Books, Wilmington, Delaware, 2006, p. 44.
[83] McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice, p. 385.
[84] Patrick Henry, quoted by McClellan in Liberty, Order, and Justice, p. 385.
[85] McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice, pp. 404-406.
[86] Ibid., p. 406.
[87] Ibid., p. 394.
[88] Ibid., p. 395.
[89] Ibid., pp. 394-395.
[90] James Madison, “Federalist No. 45,” in The Federalist: The Gideon Edition, edited by George W. Carey and James McClellan, p. 241.
[91] Alexander Hamilton, quoted by Spalding, p. 124.
[92] Spalding, p. 122.
[93] Ibid., p. 112.
[94] Ibid.
[95] Ibid., p. 113.
[96] Ceaser, p. 552.
[97]McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice, p. 425.
[98] Ibid.
[99] Pilon, “The Purpose and Limits of Government,” p. 26.
[100] Roger Pilon, “Madison’s Constitutional Vision: The Legacy of Enumerated Powers,” in James Madison and the Future of Limited Government, edited by John Samples, Cato Institute, Washington, D.C., 2002, p. 29.
[101] Ibid.
[102] Ibid., pp. 29-30.
[103] Ceaser, p. 552.
[104] McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice, p. 424.
[105] Ibid., p. 425.
[106] Ibid.
[107] Spalding, p. 113.
[108] Gary L. Gregg, II, “The Origins and Meaning of the Electoral College,” in Securing Democracy: Why We Have an Electoral College, edited by Gary L. Gregg, II, ISI Books, Wilmington, Delaware, 2001, pp. 20-21.
[109] Ibid., p. 21.
[110] Ibid.
[111] McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice, p. 303.
[112] Ibid.
[113] Ibid.
[114] Hickok, p. 2.
[115] Ibid., pp. 3-4.
[116] Herman Belz, The Constitution and the Rule of Law in America, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C., 2009, p. 35.
[117] Peter Zavodnyik, The Rise of the Federal Colossus: The Growth of Federal Power from Lincoln to F.D. R., Praeger, Santa Barbara, California, 2011, p. xii.
[118] Ibid.
[119] Ibid., pp. xii-xiv.
[120] Thomas Jefferson, “Opinion of the Constitutionality of a National Bank, February 15, 1791,” in The Founders’ Almanac: A Practical Guide to the Notable Events, Greatest Leaders & Most Eloquent Words of the American Founding, edited by Matthew Spalding, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C., 2002, pp. 154-155.
[121] Hickok, p. 30.
[122] Ibid., pp. 30-31.
[123] Burton W. Folsom, Jr., “Madison’s Veto Sets a Precedent,” The Freeman, January/February 2008, p. 29, <http://www.fee.org/the_freeman/detail/madisons-veto-sets-a-precedent> accessed on August 4, 2014.
[124] Ibid.
[125] Ibid.
[126] Ibid., p. 30.
[127] Thomas Jefferson, “Letter to Abigail Adams, September 11, 1804,” quoted in The Founders’ Almanac, p. 165.
[128] Alfred H. Kelly, Winfred A. Harbison, and Herman Belz, The American Constitution: Its Origins and Development, Volume I, seventh edition, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1991, p. 197.
[129] Hickok, p. 45.
[130] Ibid., p. 46.
[131] Ibid.
[132] Kenneth M. Stamp, editor, The Causes of the Civil War, Prentice-Hall, Inc, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1965, p. 37.
[133] Ceaser, p. 101.
[134] Zavodnyik, p. 41.
[135] Allen C. Guelzo, “Abraham Lincoln or the Progressives: Who was the real Father of Big Government?” Special Report, No. 100, B. Kenneth Simon Center for Principles and Politics, The Heritage Foundation, February 8, 2012, p. 16.
[136] Hickok, p. 49.
[137] Ibid.
[138] Zavodnyik, p. 111.
[139] Ceaser, p. 102.
[140] Belz, Constitutionalism and the Rule of Law in America, p. 55.
[141] Ibid.
[142] Pilon, “The Purpose and Limits of Government,” p. 26.
[143] Zavodnyik, p. 203.
[144] Spalding, p. 191.
[145] Ceaser, p. 102.
[146] Ibid.
[147] Paul D. Moreno, The American State from the Civil War to the New Deal: The Twilight of Constitutionalism and the Triumph of Progressivism, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2013, p. 136. 
[148] Spalding, p. 114.
[149] Gregory F. Zoeller, “Is There a Better Way to Select Indiana Senators?” Indiana Policy Review, July 17, 2014, <http://inpolicy.org/2014/07/draft-717/> accessed on July 28, 2014.
[150] Moreno, p. 136.
[151] Ibid., p. 137.
[152] Zoeller.
[153] Spalding, p. 199.
[154] Robert Higgs, Crisis and Leviathan: Critical Episodes in the Growth of American Government, Oxford University Press, New York, 1987, p. 122.
[155] Ibid., p. 123.
[156] Jim Powell, “Jump starting the economy,” Cato Institute, September 10, 2010, <http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/jumpstarting-economy> accessed on June 19, 2014.
[157] Moreno, p. 178.
[158] Ibid.
[159] Franklin D. Roosevelt, “Commonwealth Club Address, September 23, 1932,” TeachingAmericanHistory.org,
<http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?documentprint=447> accessed on April 3, 2013. 
[160] Franklin D. Roosevelt, First Inaugural Address, quoted in Moreno, p. 231.
[161] Hickok, p. 65.
[162] Ceaser, p. 103.
[163] Hickok, p. 65.
[164] Michael Barone, Our Country: The Shaping of America from Roosevelt to Reagan, The Free Press, New York, p. 95.
[165] Alfred H. Kelly, Winfred A. Harbison, and Herman Belz, The American Constitution: Its Origins and Development, Volume II, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1991, p. 480.
[166] Robert H. Bork, The Tempting of America: The Political Seduction of the Law, The Free Press, New York, 1990, p. 53.
[167] Pilon, “The Purpose and Limits of Government,” p. 29.
[168] Ibid.
[169] Ibid., pp. 29-30.
[170] Ibid., p. 30.
[171] Mario Loyola, “Reclaiming Liberty: How States Can Revive the 10th Amendment and Save the Constitution,” Center for 10th Amendment Action, Policy Perspective, March 2014, Texas Public Policy Foundation,
< http://www.texaspolicy.com/center/tenth-amendment/reports/reclaiming-liberty-how-states-can-revive-10th-amendment-and-save> accessed on August 5, 2014.
[172] Richard A. Epstein and Mario Loyola, “Saving Federalism,” in National Affairs, No. 20, Summer 2014, Washington, D.C., pp. 3-4.
[173] Morton Keller, “The New Deal and Progressivism: A Fresh Look,” in The New Deal and the Triumph of Liberalism, edited by Sidney M. Milkis and Jerome M. Mileur, University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst and Boston, Massachusetts, 2002, p. 321.
[174] Gordon Lloyd and David Davenport, The New Deal and Modern American Conservatism: A Defining Rivalry, Hoover Institution Press, Stanford, California, 2013, pp. 16-17.
[175] Franklin D. Roosevelt: "State of the Union Message to Congress," January 11, 1944. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project, <http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=16518> accessed on August 6, 2014.
[176] Loyola, “Reclaiming Liberty.”
[177] Richard A. Epstein and Mario Loyola, p. 3.
[178] Ibid.
[179] Ibid.
[180] Ibid.
[181] Ibid.
[182] Hickok, p. 69.
[183] Ibid.
[184] John Samples, The Struggle to Limit Government, Cato Institute, Washington, D.C., 2010, p. 34.
[185] Ibid., p. 37.
[186] Ibid.
[187] Ibid., pp. 35-36.
[188] Ibid., p. 36.
[189] Ibid.
[190] Ibid.
[191] Hickok, p. 69.
[192] Samples, p. 55.
[193] Barry Goldwater, The Conscience of a Conservative, Regnery Publishing, Washington, D.C., 1990, p. 60.
[194] Ibid., p. 19.
[195] Ibid., p. 23.
[196] Ibid., p. 22.
[197] Ibid.
[198] Hickok, p. 70.
[199] Samples, p. 42.
[200] Ibid., p. 43.
[201] Ronald Reagan: "Inaugural Address," January 20, 1981. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project, <http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=43130> accessed on August 6, 2014.
[202] Ibid.
[203] Ibid.
[204] Ronald Reagan, “Interview with reporters from the Los Angeles Times,’ January 20, 1982, quoted in Ronald Reagan: The Great Communicator, edited by Frederick J. Ryan, Jr., Perennial, New York, 2001, p. 58.
[205] Samples, p. 107.
[206] Ibid.
[207] Ibid., pp. 115-116.
[208] Lee Edwards, The Conservative Revolution: The Movement That Remade America, The Free Press, New York, 1999, p. 229.
[209] Ibid., p. 228.
[210] Ibid., p. 230.
[211] Steven Hayward, Ronald Reagan: Conservative Statesman, Makers of American Political Thought Series, No. 9, June 4, 2013,The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C.,   <http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/06/ronald-reagan-conservative-statesman> accessed on August 6, 2014.
[212] Ibid.
[213] Ronald Reagan: "Executive Order 12612 - Federalism," October 26, 1987. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project, <http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=33607>  accessed on August 1, 2014.
[214] Ibid.
[215] Steven F. Hayward, The Age of Reagan: The Conservative Counterrevolution, 1980-1989, Crown Forum, New York, 2009, p. 411.
[216] Ibid.
[217] Lloyd and Davenport, p. 55.
[218] Samples, p. 252.
[219] Edwards, p. 298.
[220] Ibid.
[221] Ibid.
[222] Major Garret, The Enduring Revolution: The Inside Story of the Republican Ascendancy and Why It Will Continue, Three Rivers Press, New York, 2006, pp. 11-12.
[223] Edwards, p. 306.
[224] Ibid., p. 325.
[225] Samples, p. 204.
[226] Edwards, p. 326.
[227] Ibid.
[228] Michael D. Tanner, Leviathan on the Right: How Big-Government Conservatism Brought Down the Republican Revolution, Cato Institute, Washington, D.C., 2007, p. vii.
[229] Ibid., p. 185.
[230] Ibid., pp. 183-184.
[231] Romina Boccia, “Think the national debt is large? Well, the entitlement deficit is even bigger,” The Daily Signal, August 6, 2014, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C., <http://dailysignal.com/2014/08/06/think-national-debt-large-well-entitlements-deficit-even-bigger/> accessed on August 6, 2014.
[232] Derrick Morgan, “Stand Up, Governors,” The Heritage Foundation, July 22, 2014,
< http://www.heritage.org/research/commentary/2014/7/stand-up-governors> accessed on August 4, 2014.
[233] Ibid.
[234] Natalie Johnson, “12 States Sue Obama Administration for Regulatory ‘Overreach,’” The Daily Signal, August 7, 2014, The Heritage Foundation, < http://dailysignal.com/2014/08/07/twelve-states-sue-epa-destructive-regulations/> accessed on August 7, 2014.
[235] Michael Tanner, “Obamacare: What We Know Now,” Policy Analysis, No. 745, January 27, 2014, Cato Institute, Washington, D.C., <http://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/pubs/pdf/pa745_web_1.pdf> accessed on August 7, 2014, p. 20.
[236] Ibid., p. 7.
[237] Morgan.
[238] American Legislative Exchange Council, Restoring the Balance of Power: Thirteen Proposals to Return Sovereignty to the States, American Legislative Exchange Council, December 2013, Washington, D.C.,
< http://alec.org/docs/Restoring_the_balance.pdf> accessed on August 7, 2014, p. 6.
[239] Richard A. Epstein and Mario Loyola, “The United State of America,” The Atlantic, July 31, 2014,
< http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/07/the-federal-takeover-of-state-governments/375270/> accessed on August 1, 2014. 
[240] Chris Edwards, “How to Spend $3.9 Trillion,” Tax & Budget Bulletin, No. 69, February 2014, Cato Institute, Washington, D.C., < http://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/pubs/pdf/tbb_69.pdf> accessed on August 7, 2014.
[241] Ibid.
[242] ALEC, Restoring the Balance of Power, p. 10.
[243] Edwards, “How to Spend $3.9 Trillion.”
[244] Ibid.
[245] Richard A. Epstein and Mario Loyola, “The United State of America.”  
[246] Robert Rector, “Welfare State Grows as Self-Sufficiency Declines,” The Heritage Foundation, August 6, 2014,
<http://www.heritage.org/research/commentary/2014/8/welfare-state-grows-as-self-sufficiency-declines> accessed on August 6, 2014.
[247] Ibid.
[248] Matt A. Mayer, Competitive Federalism: Leveraging the Constitution to Rebuild America, The Liberty Foundation of Oklahoma, February 3, 2013, p. 6.
[249] Richard A. Epstein and Mario Loyola, “The United State of America.” 
[250] Ibid.
[251] Ibid.
[252] Ibid.
[253] Loyola, “Reclaiming Liberty.”
[254] Richard A. Epstein and Mario Loyola, “The United State of America.”
[255] Richard A. Epstein and Mario Loyola, “Saving Federalism.”
[256] Richard A. Epstein and Mario Loyola, “The United State of America.”
[257] Mayer, p. 7.
[258] Ibid., p. 9.
[259] Stephen Moore, “Low tax states create more jobs than high tax states,” Investor’s Business Daily, August 6, 2014, < http://news.investors.com/ibd-editorials-perspective/080614-712120-when-it-comes-to-job-growth-tax-rates-really-matter.htm?p=full> accessed on August 7, 2014.
[260] Richard A. Epstein and Mario Loyola, “The United State of America.”
[261] Ibid.
[262] Loyola, “Reclaiming Liberty.”
[263] Richard A. Epstein and Mario Loyola, “The United State of America.”
[264] Ibid.
[265] Richard E. Wagner, “American Federalism: How Well Does It Support Liberty?” Mercatus Center, George Mason University, Arlington, Virginia, 2014, <http://mercatus.org/sites/default/files/Wagner_Federalism_v2.pdf> accessed on August 8, 2014, p. 6.
[266] Mayer, p. 6.
[267] Richard A. Epstein and Mario Loyola, “The United State of America.”
[268] Mayer, p. 9.
[269] Ibid.
[270] Ibid.
[271] Ibid.
[272] Ibid., pp. 9-10.
[273] Ibid., p. 10.
[274] Ibid., p. 14.
[275] Ibid.
[276] Ibid., p. 6.
[277] Michael S. Greve, “But What Kind of Federalism,” The Insider: Conservative Ideas for Advancing Liberty, Winter 2013,The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C., 2013, p. 12.
[278] Ibid.
[279] James L. Buckley, Freedom at Risk: Reflections on Politics, Liberty, and the State, Encounter Books, New York, 2010, pp. 15-16.
[280] Ibid., pp. 14-15.
[281] Goldwater, p. 60.
[282] Loyola, “Reclaiming Liberty.”
[283] Richard A. Epstein and Mario Loyola, “Saving Federalism,” p. 17.
[284] Buckley, p. 17.
[285] Ibid.
[286] Ibid., p. 19.
[287] Ibid., pp. 17 and 19.
[288] Gordon Lloyd and David Davenport, p. 91.
[289] Ronald Reagan, “Remarks to the annual meeting of the National Governors’ Association, Cincinnati, Ohio,” August 8, 1988, quoted in Ronald Reagan: The Great Communicator, edited by Frederick J. Ryan, Jr., Perennial, New York, 2001, p. 54.     
[290] Goldwater, p. xxv.

 

 

   

 

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