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September 2015 Policy Study, Number 15-8

   

The Electoral College: Explaining a Constitutional Mystery and Defending American Constitutionalism

   

Endnotes

   

 

[1] Gary L. Gregg, II, “The Origins and Meaning of the Electoral College,” in Securing Democracy: Why We Have an Electoral College, edited by Gary L. Gregg, II, ISI Books, Wilmington, Delaware, 2001, pp. 20-21.
[2] Ibid., p. 21.
[3] Ibid.
[4] Tara Ross, Enlightened Democracy: The Case for the Electoral College, World Ahead Publishing, Inc., Los Angeles, California, 2004, p. 17. 
[5] Ibid., pp. 17-18.
[6] The Heritage Foundation, “United States Constitution, Article II, Section 1,” The Heritage Guide to the Constitution, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C., <http://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/2/essays/80/electoral-college> accessed on August 10,  2015.
[7] Jack C. Plano and Milton Greenberg, The American Political Dictionary, 11th edition, Harcourt College Publishers, New York, 2002, p. 83.
[8] Ibid.
[9] Ibid.
[10] Ibid.
[11] George F. Will, “Foreword,” Enlightened Democracy: The Case for the Electoral College, World Ahead Publishing, Inc., Los Angeles, California, 2004, p. x. 
[12] bid.
[13] “Twelfth Amendment, United States Constitution,” The Heritage Guide to the Constitution.
[14] Ross, p. 17.
[15] Ibid., p. 29.
[16] Bill Whalen, “Three Cheers for the Electoral College,” Hoover Daily Report, October 6, 2004, Hoover Institution, <http://www.hoover.org/research/three-cheers-electoral-college> accessed on August 15, 2015.
[17] Ibid.
[18] National Popular Vote, “Explanation of National Popular Vote Bill,” National Popular Vote, <http://nationalpopularvote.com/pages/explanation.php> accessed on August 15, 2015.
[19] National Popular Vote, “Electoral College is 61% of the Way to Being Fixed,” National Popular Vote, <http://nationalpopularvote.com/index.php> accessed on August 15, 2015.
[20] Ibid.
[21] Hans A. von Spakovsky, “Destroying the Electoral College: The Anti-Federalist National Popular Vote Scheme,” Legal Memorandum, No. 73, October 26, 2011, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C., <http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/10/destroying-the-electoral-college-the-anti-federalist-national-popular-vote-scheme> accessed on August 15, 2015.
[22] Ibid.
[23] Ibid.
[24] John Samples, “A Critique of the National Popular Vote Plan for Electing the President,” Policy Analysis, No. 622, October 13, 2008, Cato Institute, Washington, D.C., <http://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/pubs/pdf/pa-622.pdf> accessed on August 15, 2015.
[25] John Samples, “Keep the Electoral College,” Cato Institute, December 21, 2000, <http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/keep-electoral-college> accessed on August 15, 2015.
[26] Ibid.
[27] Ibid.
[28] von Spakovsky, p. 7.
[29] Samples, “A Critique of the National Popular Vote Plan for Electing the President,” p. 7.
[30] Samples, “Keep the Electoral College.”
[31] Ross, p. 81.
[32] Samples, “Keep the Electoral College.”
[33] von Spakovsky, p. 9.
[34] Ross, p. 100.
[35] Michael Barone, “The Electoral College and the Future of American Political Parties,” in Securing Democracy: Why We Have an Electoral College, edited by Gary L. Gregg II, ISI Books, Wilmington, Delaware, 2001, pp. 82-83.
[36] Ibid.
[37] Ibid., pp. 85-86.
[38] Ibid., p. 86.
[39] von Spakovsky, p. 8.
[40] Ibid.
[41] Ibid.
[42] Ibid.
[43] Ibid., pp. 8-9.
[44] Ibid., p. 10.
[45] Ibid.
[46] Ibid.
[47] Ibid.
[48] Ibid., p. 11.
[49] George Grant, The Importance of the Electoral College, Vision Forum Ministries, San Antonio, Texas, 2004, p. 55.
[50] Bruce S. Thornton, Democracy’s Dangers & Discontents: The Tyranny of the Majority from the Greeks to Obama, Hoover Institution Press, Stanford, California,2014, p. 55.
[51] James McClellan, Liberty, Order, and Justice: An Introduction to the Constitutional Principles of American Government, Liberty Fund, Indianapolis, Indiana, 2000, p. 253.
[52] Gary L. Gregg II, The Origins and Meaning of the Electoral College,” in Securing Democracy: Why We Have an Electoral College, edited by Gary L. Gregg II, ISI Books, Wilmington, Delaware, 2001, p. 13.
[53] Matthew Spalding, We Still Hold These Truths: Rediscovering Our Principles, Reclaiming Our Future, ISI Books, Wilmington, Delaware, 2009, p. 118.
[54] Ibid.
[55] Ibid.
[56] Ibid., p. 119.
[57] Robert A. Levy, “Electoral College was Framers’ Antidote to Popular Vote,” Cato Institute, May 13, 2013, <http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/electoral-college-was-framers-antidote-popular-vote> accessed on August 12, 2015.
[58] Spalding, p. 49.
[59] Ibid.
[60] Ibid., p. 119.
[61] von Spakovsky, p. 4.
[62] Ross, p. 12.
[63] Russell Kirk, The American Cause, ISI Books, Wilmington, Delaware, 2004, p. 68.
[64] James Madison, “Federalist No. 45,” in The Federalist: The Gideon Edition by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, edited by George W. Carey and James McClellan, Liberty Fund, Indianapolis, Indiana, 2001, p. 241.
[65] Tenth Amendment, “The Constitution of the United States,” in The Federalist: The Gideon Edition by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, edited by George W. Carey and James McClellan, Liberty Fund, Indianapolis, Indiana, 2001, p. 542.
[66] Grant, p. 7.
[67] Gerard V. Bradley, Religious Liberty in the American Republic, First Principles Series, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C., 2008, p. 24.
[68] Ibid., pp. 24-25.
[69] Ronald Reagan, quoted by Tara Ross, Enlightened Democracy, p. 75.
[70] von Spakovsky, p. 3.
[71] George F. Will, “A College Education,” in With a Happy Eye But…America and the World, 1997-2002, The Free Press, New York, 2002, p. 240.
[72] Ross, p. 87.
[73] Levy.
[74] Tara Ross, “The Electoral College: Enlightened Democracy,” Legal Memorandum, No. 15, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C., November 1, 2004, < http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2004/11/the-electoral-college-enlightened-democracy> accessed on August 15, 2015.
[75] Daniel Patrick Moynihan, “The Electoral College and the Uniqueness of America,” in Securing Democracy: Why We Have an Electoral College, edited by Gary L. Gregg II, ISI Books, Wilmington, Delaware, 2001, p. 88. 
[76] Ibid., p. 100.
[77] Claes G. Ryn, “Power Without Limits: The Allure of Political Idealism and the Crumbling of American Constitutionalism,” Humanitas,  Vol. XXVI, Nos. 1 and 2, 2013, National Humanities Institute,
< http://www.nhinet.org/ryn26-1.pdf> accessed on August 15, 2015.
[78] Barry M. Goldwater, The Conscience of a Conservative, MJF Books, New York, 1990, p. 14.

 

   

 

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